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CHIP TECH
India's poor scrape a dangerous living in new 'e-waste' jobs

Computer chip sales up sharply in May over a year ago
Washington (AFP) July 6, 2010 - Worldwide semiconductor sales rose 47.6 percent in May over a year ago and were 4.5 percent higher than the previous month, the Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA) said Tuesday. The SIA said global sales of computer chips reached 24.7 billion dollars in May compared with 16.7 billion dollars in May 2009 and 23.6 billion dollars in April. "Global sales of semiconductors in May reached a new high and remain on pace to reach the SIA forecast of 28.4 percent growth to 290.5 billion dollars in 2010," SIA president George Scalise said in a statement. "Chip sales have been buoyed by strength in sales of personal computers, cellphones, corporate information technology, industrial applications, and autos," Scalise said.

"Emerging markets, including China and India, are fueling sales of computation and communications products," he said. "Demand from the corporate information technology and industrial sectors that had pushed out replacement cycles during the global economic recession is beginning to come back," he added. Scalise noted that the strong year-on-year growth rates "underscore the very depressed market conditions of the first half of 2009. "Going forward, the year-on-year growth comparisons will reflect the industry recovery that gained momentum in the second half of last year," he said. Semiconductor sales in the Americas rose 52.9 percent in May over a year ago and were 8.2 percent higher than in April. Chip sales in the Asia-Pacific region in May were up 50.9 percent over a year ago and 5.0 percent higher than in April.
by Staff Writers
New Delhi (AFP) July 6, 2010
Young rag-pickers sifting through rubbish are a common image of India's chronic poverty, but destitute children face new hazards picking apart old computers as part of the growing "e-waste" industry.

Asif, aged seven, spends his days dismantling electronic equipment in a tiny, dimly-lit unit in east Delhi along with six other boys.

"My work is to pick out these small black boxes," he said, fingers deftly prising out integrated circuits from the pile of computer remains stacked high beside him.

His older brother Salim, 12, is also hard at work instead of being at school. He is extracting tiny transistors and capacitors from wire boards.

The brothers, who decline to reveal how much they earn a day, say they are kept frantically busy as increasing numbers of computers, printers and other electronic goods are discarded by offices and homes.

Few statistics are known about the informal "e-waste" industry, but a United Nations report launched in February described how mountains of hazardous waste from electronic products are growing exponentially in developing countries.

It said India would have 500 percent more e-waste from old computers in 2020 than in 2007, and 18 times more old mobile phones.

The risks posed to those who handle the cast-offs are clear to T.K. Joshi, head of the Centre for Occupational and Environmental Health at the Maulana Azad Medical College in New Delhi.

He studied 250 people working in the city as recyclers and dismantlers over 12 months to October 2009 and found almost all suffered from breathing problems such as asthma and bronchitis.

"We found dangerously high levels -- 10 to 20 times higher than normal -- of lead, mercury and chromium in blood and urine samples," he told AFP.

"All these have a detrimental effect on the respiratory, urinary and digestive systems, besides crippling immunity and causing cancer."

Toxic metals and poisons enter workers' bloodstreams during the laborious manual extraction process and when equipment is crudely treated to collect tiny quantities of precious metals.

"The recovery of metals like gold, platinum, copper and lead uses caustic soda and concentrated acids," said Joshi.

"Workers dip their hands in poisonous chemicals for long hours. They are also exposed to fumes of highly concentrated acid."

Safety gear such as gloves, face masks and ventilation fans are virtually unheard of, and workers -- many of them children -- often have little idea of what they are handling.

"All the workers we surveyed were unaware of the dangers they were exposed to. They were all illiterate and desperate for employment," said Joshi. "Their choice is clear -- either die of hunger or of metal poisoning."

And he warned exposure to e-waste by-products such as cadmium and lead could result in a slow, painful death.

"They can't sleep or walk," he said. "They are wasted by the time they reach 35-40 years of age and incapable of working."

There are no estimates of how many people die in India from e-waste poisoning as ill workers generally drift back to their villages when they can no longer earn a living.

"The irony is that the amounts of gold and platinum they extract are traces -- fractions of a milligramme," said Priti Mahesh, programme coordinator of the New Delhi-based Toxic Link environment group.

"Computers, televisions and mobile phones are most dangerous because they have high levels of lead, mercury and cadmium -- and they have short life-spans so are discarded more," she said.

The Indian government has proposed a law to regulate the e-waste trade, but Delhi environment group the Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) said any legislation would miss the army of informal workers such as brothers Asif and Salim.

"The proposed law says only big firms should be in the business of recycling and dismantling," said Kushal Pal Singh Yadav, a CSE campaigner.

"This is not going to work because the informal sector already has a cheap system of collection, disposal or recycling in place -- so people will use that."

For Joshi, the sight of children working in appalling conditions taking computers apart is as potent a symbol of India's deep troubles as rag-pickers sorting through stinking household rubbish dumps.

"India needs laws which will protect workers' interests, especially the vulnerable and children. We have a lot to learn from Western societies about workers' rights," he said.



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