Space Industry and Business News  





.
TECH SPACE
Converting Acid Rain Chemicals Into Useful Products

File image.
by Staff Writers
London UK (SPX) Oct 28, 2010
Power plants that burn fossil fuels remain the main source of electricity generation across the globe. Modern power plants have scrubbers to remove sulfur compounds from their flue gases, which has helped reduce the problem of acid rain.

Now, researchers in India have devised a way to convert the waste material produced by the scrubbing process into value-added products. They describe details in the International Journal of Environment and Pollution.

Fossil fuels contain sulfur compounds that are released as sulfur dioxide during combustion. As such, flue gas desulfurisation (FGD) has become mandatory in most of the developed world. There are numerous methods, but most are based on wet limestone and caustic scrubbing.

Wet limestone scrubbing generate s large quantities of solid gypsum waste, while wet caustic scrubbing generates alkaline waste containing aqueous mixture of bisulfite, sulfite and sulfate. Sulfate can be removed from water by desalination processes such as reverse osmosis and ion exchange, but these are expensive.

Rima Biswas of the National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), in Nagpur, in India, and colleagues have designed a chemo-biological approach for treating the sulfate-rich effluent generated during wet scrubbing of flue gas emissions from fossil fuel fired power plants.

The technique involves microbial sulfate reduction using an anaerobic up-flow packed bed bioreactor containing microbes, with ethanol as the carbon source essential for microbial growth.

The team found that more than 90% of the total equivalent sulfate present in the effluent was reduced to sulfide at a rate of up to 3 kilograms per day per cubic meter of sulfate residue. In this form the waste can be easily converted into elemental sulfur for industrial use or into metal sulfide nanoparticles for research.

earlier related report
Measuring the electrical properties of nano-crystals
UK scientists help to create standards for measuring electric materials on the nanoscale The UK's National Physical Laboratory (NPL) is working to provide more reliable measurement of the electrical properties of materials used in nanotechnology - which could lead to much more accurate devices in the future.

Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) won the Nobel Prize in 1986. It uses a nano-sized probe to feel the surface of a material - akin to a finger reading Braille on an extremely small scale. The technique can also measure the electrical properties of materials used in nanotechnology - and "feel" how the materials react when electricity is passed through it.

SPM opens up a lot of new opportunities for new devices as we can now find out how electrical materials are working at the nanoscale. The one piece of missing information is that of measuring reliable values.

NPL researchers have now discovered that by combining textural analysis, through electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), with piezoresponse force microscopy, quantitative measurements of the piezoelectric properties can be made at a scale of 25 nm, smaller than the domain size i.e. the electrical features that dictate the materials properties.

The combined technique is used to obtain data on the domain-resolved effective single crystal piezoelectric response of individual crystallites in Pb(Zr0.4Ti0.6)O3 ceramics. The results offer insight into the science of domain engineering and provide practical information for the future development of new nano-structured ferroelectric materials for memory, nano-actuators, and sensors.

Tim Burnett from NPL said, "As the drive to miniaturize devices continues we will need to make changes in how they are made to increase performance levels, so measuring how electrical materials behave on the nanoscale is essential. The problem with making things that are nano-sized is that it is very difficult to measure their performance. Our research at NPL will therefore enable genuine comparisons to be made and promote a better understanding of the nanotechnology of electrical materials and devices."




Share This Article With Planet Earth
del.icio.usdel.icio.us DiggDigg RedditReddit
YahooMyWebYahooMyWeb GoogleGoogle FacebookFacebook



Related Links
National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI)
Space Technology News - Applications and Research



Tempur-Pedic Mattress Comparison

Newsletters :: SpaceDaily Express :: SpaceWar Express :: TerraDaily Express :: Energy Daily
XML Feeds :: Space News :: Earth News :: War News :: Solar Energy News
TECH SPACE
China protecting strategic interests with rare earths policy
Xiamen, China (AFP) Oct 24, 2010
China's restrictions on exports of rare earths are aimed at maximising profit, strengthening its homegrown high-tech companies and forcing other nations to help sustain global supply, experts say. China last year produced 97 percent of the global supply of rare earths - a group of 17 elements used in high-tech products ranging from flat-screen televisions to iPods to hybrid cars - but is h ... read more

.
Get Our Free Newsletters Via Email
  


TECH SPACE
Plant-Based Plastics Not Necessarily Greener Than Oil-Based Relatives

Two Dissimilar Materials Display Unexpected Magnetism

Converting Acid Rain Chemicals Into Useful Products

Australia's Telstra iPad-style budget tablet

TECH SPACE
First MEADS Intra-Fire Unit Communications Hardware Delivered

Raytheon Reaches Milestone In Naval SATCOM Program

Boeing Receives Secure Messaging Technology Contract Extension from US Army

Indian army in communication system tender

TECH SPACE
Boeing Ships LightSquared's SkyTerra One Mobile ComSat To Launch Site

Hylas-1 Satellite Readied For Launch From European Spaceport

ILS Proton Successfully Launches XM-5 Satellite

Ariane Moves Into Final Phase Of Globalstar Soyuz 2 Launch Campaign

TECH SPACE
'Exorbitant' price talk for Galileo maps way off beam: EU

Russia To Launch 8 Glonass Navigation Satellites In 2011-2013

S.Africa implants GPS chips in rhino horns to fight poaching

Rhinos equipped with GPS tracking

TECH SPACE
NASA Releases Report About Australia Balloon Mishap

Aeromexico Operates Its First "Green Flight"

India mulls Boeing Globemaster III deal

Boeing Projects 90 Billion Dollar Commercial Airplanes Market In Russia And CIS

TECH SPACE
Intel to open billion-dollar chip plant in Vietnam

Intel to invest up to 8 billion dollars in US chip plants

Intel posts three billion dollar quarterly net profit

Motorola sues Apple for patent infringement

TECH SPACE
Italy slaps restrictions on Google's Street View

TRMM Watches Richard Dump Rain On Belize

China launches own version of Google Earth

Prototype NASA Earth Camera Goes For Test Flight

TECH SPACE
Microbes May Consume Far More Oil-Spill Waste Than Earlier Thought

Chinese iPhone workers poisoned by chemical: report

Delicacies at risk from Naples garbage crisis: experts

Plants Play Larger Role Than Thought In Cleaning Up Air Pollution


The content herein, unless otherwise known to be public domain, are Copyright 1995-2010 - SpaceDaily. AFP and UPI Wire Stories are copyright Agence France-Presse and United Press International. ESA Portal Reports are copyright European Space Agency. All NASA sourced material is public domain. Additional copyrights may apply in whole or part to other bona fide parties. Advertising does not imply endorsement,agreement or approval of any opinions, statements or information provided by SpaceDaily on any Web page published or hosted by SpaceDaily. Privacy Statement