Free Newsletters - Space - Defense - Environment - Energy - Solar - Nuclear
..
. Space Industry and Business News .




TECH SPACE
3D X-ray Film: Rapid Movements in Real Time
by Staff Writers
Karlsruhe, Germany (SPX) Mar 19, 2014


The 3D radiograph shows the hip joints of the weevil, but only the 3D X-ray film shows how they interlock during climbing. Image courtesy dos Santos Rolo et al., PNAS, 2014.

How does the hip joint of a crawling weevil move? A technique to record 3D X-ray films showing the internal movement dynamics in a spatially precise manner and, at the same time, in the temporal dimension has now been developed by researchers at ANKA, KIT's Synchrotron Radiation Source.

The scientists applied this technique to a living weevil. From up to 100,000 two-dimensional radiographs per second, they generated complete 3D film sequences in real time or slow motion.

Three-dimensional radiographs represent internal structures, but do not provide any information about movement sequences. Conventional computer tomography is not efficient enough to reproduce movement in a spatially precise manner and, at the same time, in the temporal dimension.

Every individual three-dimensional image, called tomogram, is reconstructed from hundreds of two-dimensional radiographs. "To produce highly resolved tomograms at such recording speed, we had to adjust every setting screw, from the X-ray source to the pixel detector and we optimally attuned all process steps to each other," Tomy dos Santos Rolo says.

The doctoral student is the leading developer of the experimental setup. By making the 3D image frequencies approach the image rates known for 2D cine films, he reached the world record in high-speed tomography, i.e. a real 3D film with microscopic magnification.

For scientific evaluation, the three-dimensional contours of anatomic structures have to be clearly visible. This is achieved by the so-called phase contrast. If highly parallel X-rays pass the biological examination object, wave optics phenomena occur, which highlight the inner and outer contours.

"It is these contours that matter to us. We want to distinguish individual functional elements that move relative to each other. That is why we need sharp contours," Alexey Ershov, the expert for image analysis in the team, says.

From the X-ray source to movement analysis, all process stages are designed to filter out image noise without reducing contrast. This also applies to the mathematic algorithms optimized for radiography. They reconstruct three spatial and one temporal dimension and derive exact movement patterns from the data.

In line with the first moving images - cinematography -, the scientists call their method "cinetomography". In the late 19th century, movements of big animals were studied. Today, researchers can analyze internal biological processes of small organisms, as is now demonstrated for the recently discovered screw joint of the weevil. Insects, spiders, and crustaceans make up more than 80% of all species.

Cinetomography cannot only be used to image in four dimensions biological and biotechnological processes, but also combustion processes relevant to industry.

Tomy dos Santos Rolo, Alexey Ershov, Thomas van de Kamp, and Tilo Baumbach: In vivo X-ray cine-tomography for tracking morphological dynamics, PNAS Early Edition (2014), DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1308650111

.


Related Links
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Space Technology News - Applications and Research






Comment on this article via your Facebook, Yahoo, AOL, Hotmail login.

Share this article via these popular social media networks
del.icio.usdel.icio.us DiggDigg RedditReddit GoogleGoogle




Memory Foam Mattress Review
Newsletters :: SpaceDaily :: SpaceWar :: TerraDaily :: Energy Daily
XML Feeds :: Space News :: Earth News :: War News :: Solar Energy News





TECH SPACE
Build me a face in 3D: British man's life 'transformed'
London (AFP) March 12, 2014
A British man who suffered horrific facial injuries in a motorbike accident has had pioneering surgery to rebuild his face using 3D printed parts. Stephen Power from Cardiff in Wales is thought to be one of the first trauma patients in the world to have a procedure in which 3D printing was used at every stage. The 29-year-old suffered multiple trauma injuries in an accident in 2012. Desp ... read more


TECH SPACE
Heat-Based Technique Offers New Way to Measure Microscopic Particles

A brake for spinning molecules

In the lab, scientists coax E. coli to resist radiation damage

Reducing debris threat from satellite batteries

TECH SPACE
NGG Starts Integration Of High-Speed Downlink Antennas EHF Comms Payload

Catching signals from a speeding satellite

Raytheon receives contract modification on JPSS Common Ground System

ASC Signal Completes First Phase of Horizon Teleports Installation and Receives Additional Antenna Order

TECH SPACE
Proton-M with two Russian communication satellites on board blasts off from Baikonur

ASTRA 5B delivered for integration on Ariane 5 launcher

Proton-M carrier rocket with two satellites abroad installed on Baikonur launch pad

Lockheed Martin Commercial Launch Services Announces Industry-Unique "Refund Or Reflight" Program

TECH SPACE
Astro Aerospace Delivers Antennas For Next-Gen GPS III Satellites 3 through 6

ESA to certify first Galileo position fixes worldwide

Russia plans to launch new Glonass satellite on March 24

McMurdo Announces Global Availability of Maritime Fleet Management Software

TECH SPACE
Lockheed Martin To Upgrade Apache Targeting and Pilotage System

Luke Air Force Base Receives First F-35A Lightning II

LONGBOW Receives Support Contract for UK Apache Fire Control Systems

Central Asian states report no sightings of Malaysian jet

TECH SPACE
Surface Characteristics Influence Cellular Growth on Semiconductor Material

Scientists build thinnest-possible LEDs to be stronger, more energy efficient

Rice synthetic biologists shine light on genetic circuit analysis

Toshiba sues South Korean rival for corporate spying

TECH SPACE
New Satellite Movie Shows Massive Eastern US Cool Down

Ground Validation: Contributing to Earth Observations from Space

European Parliament adopts earth observation programme Copernicus

NASA Completes Global Hawk ATTREX Flights For 2014

TECH SPACE
Polluted Paris prepares for partial car ban

Paris makes public transport free to tackle severe pollution

Cold nights, warm days trigger pollution alerts across France

Japan's Panasonic to give China expats 'pollution pay'




The content herein, unless otherwise known to be public domain, are Copyright 1995-2014 - Space Media Network. All websites are published in Australia and are solely subject to Australian law and governed by Fair Use principals for news reporting and research purposes. AFP, UPI and IANS news wire stories are copyright Agence France-Presse, United Press International and Indo-Asia News Service. ESA news reports are copyright European Space Agency. All NASA sourced material is public domain. Additional copyrights may apply in whole or part to other bona fide parties. Advertising does not imply endorsement, agreement or approval of any opinions, statements or information provided by Space Media Network on any Web page published or hosted by Space Media Network. Privacy Statement All images and articles appearing on Space Media Network have been edited or digitally altered in some way. Any requests to remove copyright material will be acted upon in a timely and appropriate manner. Any attempt to extort money from Space Media Network will be ignored and reported to Australian Law Enforcement Agencies as a potential case of financial fraud involving the use of a telephonic carriage device or postal service.